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LESSONS

Select each lesson title from the menu on the right to view lesson descriptions

Crew Resource Management (CRM) training compliments the obvious technical skills and abilities associated with aviation operations. CRM comprises a set of non-technical skills, known as crew competencies that improve operational efficiency, and most importantly, enhance safety in high reliability organizations. These skills are essential to truly achieving high reliability in the demanding aviation environment.

CRM LLC provides the following lessons:

Introduction to CRM

 

 

This lesson begins with background discussion which includes a brief history of CRM in commercial aviation. We summarize the primary crew competencies, and examine some of the actual aircraft accidents that became the catalyst for the CRM industry initiative.

 

Culture and Human Factors

 

 

Culture and Human Factors is the scientific discipline concerned with understanding human interaction with each other, and among organizations and systems, in order to optimize personal well-being, and system performance. As such, an understanding of Human Factors is at the root of CRM. This lesson will serve as a “primer” for what follows in subsequent topics.

 

Communication

 

 

Effective communication is defined by an exchange of ideas between two or more persons. This lesson examines the basic principles of effective communication using examples of what works, as well as communication failures that have resulted in aircraft accidents. Communication is essential to effective team building, and ultimately, effective CRM.

 

Leadership and Teamwork

 

 

Teamwork starts with leadership. Leadership is not inherent; it is a skill that is attained, developed, demonstrated, and applied, to build an effective team. This lesson includes discussion of team intelligence, secure authority, conflict management, operational stresses, and the dynamics of leadership/followership.

 

Workload Management

 

 

Workload Management includes initiation of new tasks, and monitoring of on-going tasks, to maintain maximum performance and efficiency of operations. Effective workload management can make the difference between success and failure in critical situations. This lesson covers task prioritization and distribution, time management, automation management/awareness, and situational awareness.

 

Situation Awareness and Monitoring

 

 

Situation awareness and monitoring is defined as “the perception of environmental elements with respect to time or space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status after some variable has changed, such as time, or some other variable, such as a predetermined event.” Monitoring refers to the need on the part of all players (i.e. pilot flying and pilot “monitoring”, as well as others present) to maintain vigilance and attention to changes in the situation, including emerging threats, and communicates their observations and intended actions to the rest of the crew. Monitoring is now understood to be an equally important function in the flight deck, as the duties of the person at the controls. This lesson addresses this very relevant subject, in a thorough and systematic manner, for application to the real world.

 

Aeronautical Decision Making - ADM

 

 

Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) is actually a very complex process that is closely tied to the risk management strategy of Threat and Error Management (TEM). ADM is defined as “a systematic approach to the mental process used by pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances.” This lesson addresses how decisions are - and should be - made in a risk managed environment.

 

Capabilities and Limitations

 

 

Prior to the inception of the CRM “culture”, Capabilities and Limitations was thought to be the primary measure of pilot performance, measured almost exclusively by stick and rudder skills. Capabilities and Limitations, however, is a discipline that requires a clear understanding of and adherence to company policies, regulations, and checklists, in addition to flying skills. In this lesson, the student will gain deeper insight into the critical role of professionalism and flight discipline. Accident analysis will demonstrate the importance of compliance, as well as the devastating consequences of intentional non-compliance.

 

Threat and Error Management - TEM

 

 

Threat and Error Management (TEM) is a natural follow-on to CRM, and is the product of collective industry experience, providing a principled approach to the challenging complexities that occur at the intersection of human performance, and highly technical environments. This lesson offers a unique insight into the risk management theory, strategies, awareness, and mitigation in a high-reliability environment.

 

Conflict Resolution

 

 

Conflict is an unavoidable aspect of life. At times, conflict even presents itself in an aircraft. In this lesson, the student will gain deeper insight on the conflict resolution process, designed to mitigate the source of a dispute, or minimize the impact of differences, with the goal of maintaining acceptable levels of safety.

 
 

MHF - The New MRM!

 

 

Maintenance Human Factors (MHF) is an important human factors training program for maintenance environments, and was designed to enhance worker safety and reduce maintenance rework. This lesson includes the Introduction to MHF, Human Factors, The Dirty Dozen, Safety Culture and Organizational Factors, Human Error, Decision Making and Leadership, Communication and Assertiveness, Conflict Resolution, Teamwork, Workload Management and Situation Awareness, Norms, Professionalism, Integrity, and Ethics, and Cross-Cultural Perspective. MHF lesson material is applicable for enhanced safety and efficiency of both aviation and non-aviation maintenance organizations, and flight departments. MHF can be purchased as a stand-alone course for maintenance organizations or as a complementary lesson to CRM for flight crews.